Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Definitions:Neoclassicism, Salon Painting, Romanticism, Realism

(a style that originated in France in the 18th century marked by elaborate decorativeness, light colors, and organic forms. In painting, Rococo subjects tend toward the frivolous, elegant, flirtation, and typically deploy symbolic iconography that audiences could read as readily as a text.)
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Happy Accidents of the Swing, 1767, French Rococo*
(in painting, a return to classical emphasis on sobriety and restraint in form and content-- precise lines, clarity, order, unity and often symmetry. Usually joined by a return to classical subject matter.)
David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps, 1802*
Salon Painting (also known as French Academic Painting)
File:William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905) - The Birth of Venus (1879).jpg
Bouguereau, Birth of Venus, 1879
Reached back away from classicism toward a more medieval (or Baroque) emphasis on emotion, including terror, awe, joy, loneliness. Romantics expressed their love for nature in serene landscapes where humans played small roles. While neoclassicism erased the presence of the artist in smooth canvases with tiny brush marks, the romantics celebrated the artists unique imagination, and you can see that in their active, animated brushwork.
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Caspar David Friedrich, Monk by the Shore, 1809* (854)(what emotional aspect of Modernism does this image illustrate poignantly?) ,

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Goya, Third of May 1808, 1814 (857)* Géricault, Raft of the Medusa, 1819(860),
as opposed to Romanticism and neoclassicism, Realism seeks to show life experiences as they are, without exaggerations or idealizations. Realist painters often chose 'low' subjects, and did not sought to show viewers that they were looking at paintings, rather than to deceive them into believing in the illusion.
Jean-Francois Millet, The Gleaners, 1857(882)
Manet, Lunch in the Studio, 1879(888
If a painstaking scrupulous, but feebly imaginative artist has to paint a courtesan of today and takes his ‘inspiration’ (that is the accepted word) from a courtesan by Titian or Raphael, it is only too likely that he will produce a work which is false, ambiguous and obscure. From the study of a masterpiece of that time and type he will learn nothing of the bearing, the glance, the smile or the living ‘style’ of one of those creatures whom the dictionary of fashion has successively classified under the coarse or playful titles of ‘doxies’, ‘kept women’, lorettes, or biches.
in other words. The stuff Baudelaire hates:
Alexander Cabanal, Birth of Venus, 1863, Salon painting, french academic painting
The stuff that lead to Cabanal (the old masters):

"...a courtesan by Titian..." Titian's Venus of Urbino, 1538, Venetian Renaissance
the stuff Baudelaire wants:

the sort of object Baudelaire calls for... Edouard Manet, Olympia, 1863, French Modernism, Realism*

Images from Constantine Guy

Courbet, The Studio of the Painter: a real Allegory, 1855 (880)*
on the left, the 'real life' that courbet paints, while turning his back on the model available to pose as venus as Salon painters would have done. On the left, the artists friends, including Baudelaire himself, and novelist Georges Sand, art critic and realist novelist Champfleury, and anarchist Proudhon.

Gazing at the Other: Romanticism and Orientalism

Romanticism, Orientalism and gazing at the Other Stoksdad 456- 475

Key Terms: Romanticism, Orientalism, Sublime
Antoine Watteau, The Sign for Gersaint's Shop. Ca. 1720. Oil on canvas, 5 feet, 11 5/8 inches x 10 feet, 1 inch

Robert Doisneau, Sidelong Glance, 1948

David Teniers the Younger, The Archduke Leopold Wilhelm in His Gallery at Brussels  (1610

Samuel F. B. Morse, Gallery of the Louvre, 1831–1833, oil on canvas. Click here to enlarge.
Samuel F. B. Morse, Gallery of the Louvre, 1831–1833, oil on canvas

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque, 1814 (17-14) 36" x 63" 
 J, Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1819 (17-15), 16' x 23' (Gericault was 27. he died at 32.)

Théodore Géricault by Alexandre Colin 1816.jpg
death mask of Theodore Géricault

Félix Nadar 1820-1910 portraits Eugène Delacroix.jpg

Felix Nadar, Portrait of Eugene Delacroix

Eugène DelacroixWomen of Algiers in their Apartment. 1834. Oil on canvas. 

Delacroix, Death of Sardanopolis, 1827, 154" x 195"

David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784

Goya, The Third of May, 1812, 1814

File:Edouard Manet 022.jpg

Manet, Execution of Maximilian, 1867 great materials on this painting here

File:Picasso Massacre in Korea.jpg
{Picasso, Massacre in Korea, 1951
David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 Neoclassicism

A style of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries that was influenced by the greek classical style and that often employed Classical themes for its subject matter and which emphasized virtue in part in response to the decadence of Rococo

Goya, The Third of May, 1812, 1814, Romanticism 

    A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution, the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity; the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator; the development of nationalistic pride; and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. In addition, romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. -web gallery of art
Romanticism emphasizes the individual eye of the artist, spontaneity, overflowing emotionalism, the imaginary, visionary, fantastic, the exotic and the personal experience. --BT 

File:Edouard Manet 022.jpg

Manet, Execution of Maximilian, (not in book), Realism

In the arts, the accurate, detailed, unembellished depiction of nature or of contemporary life. Realism rejects imaginative idealization in favour of a close observation of outward appearances. As such, realism in its broad sense has comprised many artistic currents in different civilizations. -- web museum
Realism favors everyday subjects (and so does romanticism, because it prefers the artist’s own emotional experience) depicted as the eye sees them (and so does romanticism, but it invites the inner eyein, too.) Realist painters often paint the grim side of events (and so do romantics, but they celebrate the emotional intensity, even the grim intensity of death and violence) and allow the grimness to exist without any celebration. 

File:Picasso Massacre in Korea.jpg
{Picasso, Massacre in Korea, 1951, Modernism

Modernism? Ack!!!

Key Works:

Giorgione, Sleeping Venus,1510 (poss. finished by Titian)

Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538

Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814, Neoclassical

Delacroix, Odalisque,  c. 1827, Romanticism

Cabanal, Venus,  1863  Salon Painting, or Neoclassicism
Manet, Olympia  1863 (also Realism. also Impressionism-- which many say is a type of Realism)

File:Édouard Manet - Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe.jpg
Manet, Déjeuner sur l’herbe, 1863 Modernism (some say Impressionism, some say Realism)

File:Edouard Manet 004.jpg
Manet, Bar at the Folies Bergère, 1881-82 Modernism (also Realism. also Impressionism-- which many say is a type of Realism)

[Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, ,1510 (poss. finished by Titian, Venetian Renaissance

[Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538, Venetian Renaissance

[Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814

Manet, Olympia 1863, Modernism

Yasumasa Morimura, Portrait (Futago)
Yasumasa Morimura, Portrait, Futago,  1988, Postmodernism

File:Burial at Ornans.jpg

Gustav Courbet, Burial at Ornans, Realism

Rosa Bonheur, Plowing in the Nivernais, Realism? 

Several valuable questions arose today in class:

2. When did gray hair become fashionable for women, and why?
I don't know! My first searches have not turned anything up... so I am asking some questions. Anyone here know?
I got a terrific answer from D & P grad student Loryn Pretorius
Hello, Betsy and Class!
I can definitely answer that. It all started with an STD epidemic of Syphilis that plagued the upper class in the 17th-18th centuries, Besides the common pock marks on the face (that they then covered in makeup), it also caused them to go bald, and have a general smelly disposition. So as a means to cover up the baldness and the smell, the elite started wearing wigs made of human and animal fibers (the former being very expensive, and the latter relatively cheap). The powder itself had several functions: the most important being that it was perfumed and covered the rotting flesh stench beneath it. The powder also helped to blend between the human and animal hairs creating a more unified look that allowed the lower classes to appear just as fancy as the elite. Wigs are also functional as they are fashionable in this time period. Lice proved to be just as awful as baldness, so people would shave their heads, and let the lice live in their wigs instead-- wigs are much easier to de-lice than people are.

So in essence, it wasn't that those hair colors were popular as much as the paintings reflecting the way hair looked at the time. If someone was a brunette and they powdered, it would seem gray; if they were blonde it would appear more white. At some point, colored powders became popular, and pinks, blues and lavenders made an appearance.

I hope that helps!

3. how tall was Napoleon compared to average? I found a great source for first-hand descriptions of this. It does seem that he was of average or just below average height. check out these descriptions.