Monday, December 1, 2014

December 3rd: Adam and Eve

Giotto, Lamentation, Scrovegni Chapel, (225), 1304

Giotto, Last Judgment, Scrovegni Chapel, 1304 more info at web gallery


Key Works: Wiligelmus, Creation and Fall of Adam, (10-26), 1110, about 3'

Bishop Bernward doors (10-14),1015, Hildesheim, Germany, Romanesque


Major Question:How do artists use a variety of techniques for telling the same story? How do artists tell a time-based tale in one frame? What works best illustrate your answers?


http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/envrel/images/eden.jpg
Albrecht DürerAdam and Eve, 1504

I include here links to ways to enhance  or review the reading of today's story:
1. Listen to it on youtube, Chapters 1 & 2 here, read by Alexander Scourby (together with lowbrow images) Chapter 3, same reader, no pictures here Chapter 4, here
2. you could also read it on youtube together with highbrow paintings: Chapter 1 hereChapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4

plus, here are some funny, strange, unexpected links about adam and eve:
from The Adventures of Mark Twain.
from an inexplicable ad for insurance. Plus a link that begins to explain it, but not its offensiveness.
here, you can look inside R. Crumb's illustrated Genesis.
John Houston's Bible, the trailer.
and etc.
then, my favorite. Jonathan Goldstein reading from his book Ladies and Gentlemen, the Bible!, the bits on Adam and Eve,


The Book of Genesis
King James Version
File:KJV-King-James-Version-Bible-first-edition-title-page-1611.jpg
The title page to the 1611 first edition of the Authorized Version Bible by Cornelius Boel shows the Apostles Peter and Paul seated centrally above the central text, which is flanked by Moses and Aaron. In the four corners sit Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, authors of the four gospels, with their symbolic animals. The rest of the Apostles stand around Peter and Paul. (from Wikipedia)

Adam and Eve: The Couple Made of Clay, from the Book of Genesis in the Bible

001:001 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.


The image “http://www.abcgallery.com/B/bosch/bosch36.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.
Hieronymous Bosch, Creation of Earth, outer doors of of The Garden of Earthly Delights Triptych, 1504

001:002 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

001:003 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

001:004 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.



Michelangelo, God divided the light from the darkness, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1508-1512


001:005 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

001:006 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
http://img2.allposters.com/images/BRGPOD/30096.jpg
Michelangelo, God divided the waters from Firmament, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1508-1512


001:007 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the  firmament: and it was so.
Raphael, Separation of Firmament from Waters

001:008 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

001:009 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.

001:010 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.

001:011 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.

001:012 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

001:013 And the evening and the morning were the third day.

001:014 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

001:015 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

MICHELANGELO. Creation of the Sun and Moon, Sistine Chapel. 1508-1512. Fresco. Sistine Chapel, the Vatican, Rome.

001:016 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

001:017 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,

001:018 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.

001:019 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

001:020 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.
Melchior d'Hondecoeter's The Menagerie
Melchior d’Hondecoeter, The Menagerie, 1600's

001:021 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

001:022 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.
Jacopo Torriti, Creation of the World, 1290
001:023 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.

001:024 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.
http://vidareal.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/terrorconblogspotcom_noahs_ark_edward_hicks_p111.jpg
Edward Hicks, Noah's Ark, 1800's, American (you can go see a nice Hicks painting similar to this one at Reynolda house.)

001:025 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

001:026 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

Hieronymous Bosch, Eden, from left panel of The Garden of Earthly Delights Triptych, 1504 
source
001:027 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

001:028 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

001:029 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.

001:030 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.

001:031 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

002:001 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

002:002 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.
002:003 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.

002:004 These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens,

002:005 And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.

002:006 But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.

002:007 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
Garden%20of%20Eden.JPG 
Wenzel Peter(Karlsbad 1745 - Rome 1829), Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, ~1830
002:008 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.

002:009 And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of
knowledge of good and evil.http://www.alloilpaint.com/cole/54.jpg
Thomas Cole, The Garden of Eden, 1828, American

002:010 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.

002:011 The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;

002:012 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone.

002:013 And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.

002:014 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates.

002:015 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.

002:016 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:

002:017 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.
The image “http://www.hieronymus-bosch.org/The-Tree-of-the-Knowledge-of-Good-and-Evil,-detail-from-the-right-panel-of-The-Garden-of-Earthly-Delights,-c.1500.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.
Hieronymous Bosch, Tree of Knowledge from left panel of The Garden of Earthly Delights Triptych, 1504

002:018 And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.



002:019 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.
The image “http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_ESC4bygtp2M/R346kM_cQLI/AAAAAAAACY4/QHkmWG2402g/s400/Picturing+the+Bible+Adam+naming+the+animals+-+diptych+Bargello.JPG” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.
Adam Naming the Animals, early 5th century, from a diptych, ivory. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence
002:020 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.
Hieronymus Bosch, Adam and Eve, from The Garden of Earthly Delights, about 1504


(a different version, from the claymation wonder The Adventures of Mark Twain, here. Start at minute 5.)
Ghiberti, Creation, from the Gates of Paradise, 1424
002:021 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;

002:022 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.
Bishop Bernward, Creation of Eve, about 1000


002:023 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.
Satan on the Burning Lake
William Blake, The Creation of Eve, illustration for BOOK IV of Paradise Lost, pen and watercolour on paper, 1808.


002:024 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.
Ghiberti, Creation of Eve, 1424
002:025 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.
Hugo van der Goes, Temptation, 1470 source

003:001 Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?
Masolino, Temptation,  1426, early Renaissance
003:002 And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden:

003:003 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.

003:004 And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die:

003:005 For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

003:006 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and
gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.

Michelangelo, Adam and Eve in the Garden with the Serpent, c. 1508-1512 source

003:007 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.
Adam and Eve - Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach, Adam and Eve, 1533 source

003:008 And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.

003:009 And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou?

003:010 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.
Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, defending themselves from God's accusation. Painting by Domenichino, 1625.
Domenichino, Adam and Eve Defend themselves against God's Accusation, 1625


003:011 And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?


003:012 And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.
http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/91/3991-050-975C7807.jpg
Passing the Blame. Bishop Bernward, Adam and Eve Cast out, ~1000 ce

003:013 And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.

003:014 And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:

003:015 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

003:016 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.
Limbourg Brothers, Creation, Temptation, Fall and Expulsion, 1415
003:017 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;

003:018 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field;

003:019 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.

003:020 And Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.

003:021 Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them.

003:022 And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:

003:023 Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.
Emile Nolde, Banished from Eden,  1919, German Expressionism


003:024 So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.
 Massaccio, Expulsion, 1425, early Renaissance


 Massaccio, Expulsion, 1425, early Renaissance



Marc Chagall, Expulsion, 1961

004:001 And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD.

004:002 And she again bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.

004:003 And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD.

004:004 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering:
Jan van Eyck, Offerings of Cain and Abel, from the Ghent Altarpiece, painted in grisaille, oil on wood, 1425

004:005 But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.

004:006 And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen?


004:007 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.

004:008 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.

Titian, Cain and Abel, 1570

004:009 And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper?

004:010 And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground.
Bouguereau, Adam and Eve Mourn the Death of Abel (1865ish)



004:011 And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand;

004:012 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.

004:013 And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear.

004:014 Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me.

004:015 And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.

004:016 And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.
Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, 1424
004:017 And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch.

004:018 And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech.

004:019 And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.

004:020 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle.

004:021 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.

004:022 And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.

004:023 And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt.

004:024 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.

004:025 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.

004:026 And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD.




Bishop Bernward, Creation of Eve, about 1000

Bishop Bernward, God Acuses Adam and Eve, about 1000



Bishop Bernward, Adam and Eve Reproached by the Lord, and Expusion, about 1100

For Next Term

choleric cat, sanguine rabbit, melancholic elk, phlegmatic ox. the mouse? in trouble
from Henry Sayre: ...not even Dürer could quite synthesize the northern love for precise and accurate naturalism-- the desire to render the world of real things-- with the southern idealist desire to transcend the world of real things." (460)


Spencer Stanhope, Temptation of Eve, late 1800's




Bishop Bernward, Design and possibly fabrication, Hildesheim Doors, ~1000 ce; Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, 1424


Fun for Next Term!
Bishop Bernward,Creation of Eve, Hildesheim Doors, ~1000 ce; Lorenzo Ghiberti, Creation from Gates of Paradise, 1424
 Massaccio, Expulsion, 1425, early Renaissance



Masolino, Temptation, 1424


File:Cappella brancacci, cacciata.JPG
Masaccio, Expulsion in context in the Brancacci chapel, 1425


Massaccio, Tribute Money, (453) 1426 









This story also illustrated a story from the Bible, told only in Matthew, who, historians believe, was himself a tax collector. The story goes like this: 
24. And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received tribute money came to Peter, and said, Doth not your master pay tribute? 25. He saith, Yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest thou, Simon? of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children, or of strangers? 26. Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. Jesus saith unto him, Then are the children free. 27. Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast an hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them for me and thee.
— Matthew 17:24–27
Mantegna, Dead Christ, tempera on canvas, 1490, 


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