Monday, April 24, 2017

Key Works List and Study Guide.

Week Sixteen Exam Tuesday, May 2, 2017 1:00 – 3:00 PM

Tips: For id, give Artist, Title, Date, Period and Significance.

Significance must go beyond describing what you see-- explain what that particular image has come to stand for historically (what does it tell us about the period, location, artist? Or how does it compare to another significant monument that helps us see them both more clearly? What artists of the past did the artist draw on,   or what artists of the future relied on it to develop their own work? What change does it mark in the path of history?, for example). It's always a good idea to draw on key terms and period traits. I give some sample id's from last term below the key works.

I'd consider working to answer these questions for major periods and artists:

1. What are the major traits of _________________ (Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Orientalism Pre-columbian American, West African….) and, more difficultly, what factors may have contributed to this style emerging?

2. What features distinguish the work of  _________________ (Bernini, Caravaggio, Artemisia, Picasso, Manet, Rothko, etc…)?

For Comparisons, draw on the key terms, and make sure to read the question carefully!

Be sure to look back over your notes, thinking of key themes we've covered in looking at period. I like themes questions like: choose a theme that you've seen in more than 1 image (love, violence, blue, asymmetry, government) and describe how two works explore it differently in form and content.

I will have an 'unknown' slide id... again you guys have done well on that in the past.

If you've missed class, you'll need to really study that materialfrom the text, look into additional sources ( I suggest some below), and practice writing an id and significance for each key work that you've missed

Remember these ways of thinking  about a work of art/ Points of analysis:
Form (Elements and Principles of Design sources here and here)
Emotional response
Connection to other works/comparison to other works

Key Works

Olmec Colossal Head
900 BCE, Olmec American
-Huge scale (taller than average human)
-The helmet/crown show some type of defense/war emphasis
 needs much more

1306, Giotto, Italian Protorenaissance from Scrovegni Chapel
  1. Shows Giotto Beginning to study from real Human Models
  2. Reveals the emerging Renaissance, coming into harmony, line, unity, and form, taking precedence again in the art world.
  3. Comes from this period because of it’s still awkward and not yet mastered representation of forms.

Jan van Eyck, Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami (2-5), really, really good source here.
The Arnolfini Portrait
1434, Jan Van Eyck, Flemish Renaissance

The Arnolfini Portrait is exemplary of the Flemish Renaissance in its exceptional detail and subject matter that is both secular and spiritual, rendering Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife in oil paint as they stand in a softly-lit bedchamber.  Historically, the painting precedes the High Renaissance in Italy, which places more value on overall color and composition than ideas surrounding the Flemish Renaissance.solid id!

Mona Lisa
Leonardo, Mona Lisa (13-3), intriguing source here.

Self Portrait
1500, Albrecht Durer, Northern Renaissance
-Durer’s self portrait captures Durer’s gaze and starkness as efficiently as possible.
The dramatic shadow used in the background really allows the viewer to focus on the light and warmth of the face, further adding to the mysteriousness of the piece as a whole.  The piece is extremely relevant to the Renaissance because of the attention to detail used throughout, such as in the hair and fur.
this id needs a good bit more factual evidence of significance to history and art history. Personally, I'd compare it to some other works in history and think about humanism.

Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, (13-1), Raphael, School of Athens, 13-5), great source( but there are so many! Just ask me before you rely heavily on one source.)
School of Athens
1510-1511, Raphael, High Renaissance
-Reveals ideals of Renaissance with harmoniously arranged forms and national space working together with calm dignity of figures.
-Influenced by the architecture of the room it was painted in.
-Draws on the images of the Greek philosophers
-Philosophers monumental dignity matches grandeur of arches and buildings
because this image is such a perfect representation of renaissance form, content, and style.... I'd want to feel completely comfortable spilling out pages on this one

Michelangelo, Sistine Ceiling,

Michelangelo, David, (13-8)1501-04 good source

Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, (14-4) 1623-24 good source 

The Venus of Urbino by Titian
Titian, Venus of Urbino (13-17), a good, simplistic source. See if you can find a more subtle and sophisticated (and correct! one) (there are lots!)

Venus of Urbino
1538, Titian, Italian Renaissance

Shows us the expectation for a woman of the Renaissance and the ideal domestic scene.  Painted on a wedding chest to show a new wife how she was supposed to behave.

what ties to venetian renaissance style? What comparisons to other works?

Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights Triptych (open, 13-37, and closed, not in book), 
File:Hieronymus Bosch - The Garden of Earthly Delights - The exterior (shutters).jpg
Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights Triptych (open, 13-37, and closed, not in book), 

Garden of Earthly Delights Triptych
1504, Hieronymous Bosch, Northern Renaissance

 Michelangelo da Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew,14-8, good source

Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, (14-10) great source to see this image... check out the magnifying glass at this source! more here and here
Judith and Maidservant with Head of Holofernes
1625, Artemesia Gentileschi, Italian Baroque
Demonstates Caravaggios influence on a generation of painters who explored the power of chiaroscuro… even tenebrism... to create a dramatic, theatrical power.  Shows power of Renaissance learning in Holland and Italy to achieve illusion, leading artists to explore other goals like emotion and drama.  Historically, patrons expansion (more than just church of government) led artists to explore broader base of subject matter.  Women occasionally get to have professional careers, subject of male power of great interest, as is the artist’s self.

Pieter Paul Rubens, Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, not in book, good source here

The Ecstasy of St. Theresa
1650s, Bernini, Baroque
This work is a landmark piece of the Baroque era for a myriad number of reasons, being its theatrical and dramatic, movement and fabrics, as well as its inherent sexuality.  Artistically, this piece is significant because of Bernini’s excellent in his craft, making fabrics out of stone that are as delicate as they’ve ever been.  Let’s not forget the complex emotions involved in this work… the woman depicted, St. Theresa, is on the verge of reaching sexual climax, made clear by the box and arrow aimed directly at her sex and her ecstatic facial expression.... Bernini shows the intensity of religious passion by depicting it as just like sexual passion, reflecting theresa's words.
Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, source 1656
hugely important id.... make sure you can offer a detailed analysis and describe significance! 

Rembrandt van Rijn, Self Portrait in the Studio, 'about 1628, good source
The Artist in his Studio

While not the most important work in his cannon, this work is still significant because of the fact that it is a self portrait painted very realistically, in which the artist himself is not the largest or most focal figure in the painting.  In fact, the space of the room and the canvas upon which the artist works dominates the canvas.  It is also interesting in the way that it incorporates the painterly style of the time with a non-romanticized genre subject of the artist himself, naturally at work.  An interesting tie to this would be to Velasquez’s Las Meninas, and how both painting feature artists as small but central figures depicted with their canvases.
 Jan Vermeer, Woman holding a Balance, (14-25), really good source
 Jean-Honore Fragonard, The Swing, not in book, source

The Swing
1767, Fragonard, Rococo
Here we get to see the sexuality of the time in its fullest.  Between the shoe flying off and showing her dainty little foot and the young man peering up her dressl!  The is the first time in art we get a sense of whimsical/fluffiness in a composition.  It shows the true rich French style that was happening in the 1700s.
class.... aristocracy... symbols.... relationship between patron and artist.... fête galante... new content for artists to explore...

Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, (17-12), great source
Oath of the Horatii
1784, Jacques-Louis David, Neoclassical
The oath of the Horatii uses a very classical, illusionistic style in regards to the human form, clothing, and architecture.  There was also a strong use of highlight and shadow on the figures to add to the drama of the piece.
This piece is a great representation of manhood in Rome.  Fighting was a blessing for the family name, but a curse for the women who lost their brothers, sons, and husbands.
what does this one mean in terms of French Revolution? Why does David Draw on a classical style?

Fransisco Goya, Third of May, 1808(1719), source

Third of May
1812-1814, Goya, Romanticism
  1. Heavy emphasis on drama, drastic contrast to draw out good and bad, peasants: good unified with the Earth.  Soldiers: bad, dark colors jagged linear forms, faceless.
  2. It reveals current climate of peasant life, fighting against authority, powerless and good.  Goya trying to appeal to sympathy.
  3. It comes from this period because of its highly dramatic nature and how the individual experience of the peasants is amplified in such an unrealistic rendering.

Head of an Iyoba, (16-5) good source, and more from that good source 
Head of Iyoba
1550, Edo Culture, Nigeria, African Art

Iyoba, meaning “Queen Mothers,” bore the first child and raised the future leader for their entire life.  They were viewed as instrumental to the protection and well being of the oba and the kingdom.  Made of ivory which is seen as the color white that represents a symbol of purity and with Olokun, God of the Sea. explain Olokun's role here...

Raft of the Medusa
1819, Gericault, Romanticism
The significance of the painting was to show how the people were suffering at a time when the rich were purely indulgent.  The bodies look to be as though they are in motion and push our eyes elsewhere in an upward motion.  The bodies and raft are shipwrecked on the coast of Africa.  This painting uses dramatic lighting and the contrast of beauty with horror to produce the effect of the sublime.  I see this work in relation to the Rape of the Women of Leucippus because of the movement in both of the paintings.

Claude Monet, Impression, Sunrise, (18-17), 1872 source and source
Impression, Sunrise
Monet 1972 impressionism

Loose brushstrokes meant to suggest immediacy and direct observation.  Sky and water are barely distinguishable.  After war, the regeneration of France was exemplified in the thriving part of Le Havre.  Contrast of ___ like steamboats and cranes.  Renewed strength and beauty of the country.  Monet claimed it could not be taken for a view of Le Havre so he said to call it an impression.  Before 1860s the term was used to describe the effect of a natural scene on a painter by the 1880s it was used by transference to describe a painting which relayed such an effort. needs clarity and further explanation of impressionism.

File:Boulevard du Temple by Daguerre.jpg

Louis-Jacques Mandé Daguerre, Boulevarde du Temple (not in book), source and source 

Boulevarde du Temple
1839, Jacques-Louis Mande Daguerre, Modernism, 19th century photo
Daguerre follows formal principals established by the history of art to create a sense of depth, balance, contrast.  He’s part of a movement of painters working to create greater and greater  sense of truth which is what many sad led to the invention of photography.  First photo of a human.  Captures architecture, street life, details of urban design that show us what Paris, 1939 looked like.  Invention of photography as a new art form shook artists into asking century of questions about the role of art in a world with technology.

Eduard Manet, Olympia, 1863.(18-16), so many great sources. Here's one.

Edouard Manet
Content was shocking not because of nudity but because the model's gaze and she is modeled as a prostitute.  INcludes symbols such as orchid in hair, pearl earrings, and oriental shawl. which say....... Modelled after Venus of Urbino which refers to Sleeping Venus.  Did not depict a goddess or Odalisque but a real woman of the time.  You should feel very comfortable talking about this image in terms of Modernism! Very comfortable defining modernism!

Rehearsal of the Ballet on Stage
Edgar Degas 1874
Impressionism, however it is not a real scene Degas painted in real time- from careful observation of dance he creates his own scene--this is not a characteristic of impressionism.  It’s stylistic brush strokes are impressionistic. good source

Mont Sainte-Victoire
1885, Paul Cézanne, Post Impressionism
The aesthetic form ramains firmly grounded, & framed by this foreground evergreen tree.  This painting is artistically significant because Cézanne explored and communicated the essential tension in nature between permanence and change.  During this art era it was emphasized that more abstract styles that would prove highly influential for the development of modernist painting in the early 20th century. more! explore cezanne's interest in essential forms

In the

In the Dining Room 1886, Berthe Morisot, Impressionism

This work is historically significant because it was painted by a woman in France, in a time when this was less accepted.  It reveals some of the distinctions between male and female experience.  It is part of the impressionist movement in Paris, which is apparent in Morisot’s painterly and organic brushstrokes, you can notice her tendency to have started at the center on the figure of the women, and worked outward, guiding the eye initially to said figure.  The woman depicted is a maidservant, another element of the impressionist era, which is content of everyday middle class life.  I would connect this piece visually to almost any other impressionist painting, simply because of the iconic brushstrokes.  It bring to mind Manet’s A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, mostly in terms of composition (central focus) as well as the expression on the face of the young woman depicted.

Vincent Van Gogh, Starry Night, (18-29), 1889 source
The Starry Night
Vincent Van Gogh, Post Impressionism
The preparatory work was able to be done en plein air because of the invention of paint tubes.  He then went  back to the studio to paint our well known version. Much more needed!
Location: the view from his east-facing window of his asylum room at Raint-remy-de-provence
-marker of pointillism in its style of brushstroke.


Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, (19-9), 1907. one source among many. 

Improvisation No. 30
C. 1913, Wasily Kandinsky
Advocated an art that could move beyond imitation of the physical world, inspiring, as he put it, “vibrations in the soul.”
Largely unconscious, spontaneous expressions of inner character
The piece is a subconscious effort
The presence of canons in the picture could probably be explained by constant war talk that has been going on throughout the years

Couple Wearing Raccoon Coats
1932, James VanDerZee

 Also showed an African American in a position of wealth and power that was not the typical image of African Americans in Harlem in the 1930s. could you use this image to define modernism?
Salvador Dalí, The Persistence of Memory, (19-23), 1931 good source

The Persistence of Memory
C. 1931, Salvador Dali, Surrealism
Salvador Dali frequently described his paintings as “hand painted dream photographs”
The concept of the “dream” is integral to understanding surrealism.why and in what way
Painting uses abstract objects and metaphors, as though it were a visual poem explain

The melting watches points to time being flowing and eternal while the hard rocks are reality of life and the ocean may represent the vastness of death.
Meret Oppenheim, Objet(Le Dejeuner en fourrure) (19-24), great source

1936, Meret Oppenheim, Surrealism
-Cup wrapped in antelope fur
-references to gender and an uncivilized world
-uncanny (putting your mouth to something furry to drink from)
-Made by a woman, name changed by a man
-Grounded, real, everyday cup and spoon.

-wrapped in fur, ha an unreal element
excellent list of facts... now explain their significance

Frida Kahlo, Two Fridas, 1939,. good, but a bit simple, site
The Two Fridas
1939, Frida Kahlo  The piece speaks to the time and different cultural pressures on Kahlo being both a European and a Mexican woman.  Kahlo was not a trained painter. much more needed

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, (19-18), 1917, source amoung millions of sources
1917/1964, Marcel Duchamp, Dada

 Duchamp took an ordinary article of life, placed the object so that its useful significance disappeared under a new title and point of view.  Made us rethink what we consider as art and how far it is willing to go.

Aaron Douglas, Aspects of Negro Life, 19-33), 1934. overview.
Aspects of Negro Life
Aaron Douglas

Aspects of Negro Life shows the long and torturous history of blacks in America, and how the sound of celebration and triumph against all odds had come to dominate the cultural sphere of the 1920s.  This Modernist piece is incredibly sensory, with its overlaid use of color and figures creating a rising swell of history and emotion.  A piece much needed in that time, and this one, it connected people to their own roots and culture, inspired and appreciated them, celebrated their struggles, and exposed other to how much African Americans have suffered and achieved. good details. be sure to read what the book or other source adds.

Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm, (20-3), 1950. good source

Autumn Rhythm
1950, Jackson Pollock, Abstract Expressionism
-A new artistic style, this technique was also called Action Painting that no one had seen before and people found very shocking.

-It was a way to put his emotions using layers of paint and creating a lot of movement in the piece

much more needed!

Mark Rothko, Brown, Blue, Brown on Blue, (#61), 1953 you might find these brief comparisons valuable. another reflection here. then here's a great overview.  

Brown, Blue, Brown on Blue
1953, Mark Rothko, Abstract Expressionism
-Resisting the major influence of de Kooning’s approach to modernism and the avant-garde in New York
-Rothko pioneered color field painting, invoking transcendent emotional and spiritual states through the use of strategicially painted rectangles.
-uses layered colors to enrich hues. Lends itself to a sense of inner light in the painting.  Paint looks as though it’s running up to the surface.

-represents harmony between two divergent human tendencies.  Structure=rational and disciplined, rich color=emotion and instinct.

Kojo Bonsu Staff
Asanti Culture, 20th century, Ghana
-Symbol of Authority
-Staff of office- giving the wielder power
-art validates their right to kinship
-Communicates the rules for moral behavior
-Goes for all society
-Plays a vital role in the continuity of human life

Some Key Sources:
Sister Wendy, Story of Painting, 1990's
Web Gallery of Art

avoid: Quizlet (lots of inaccuracies!)

A few of the ways to think about a work of art/ Points of analysis:
Form (Elements and Principles of Design sources here and here)
Emotional response
Connection to other works/comparison to other works
Historical content/context

Perspective (various forms)
fête galante,

Pre-Columbian American, more specifically

      • Olmec, 
      • Incan
      • Mayan
West African, more specifically

      • Yoruba
      • Asante
      • Nok
High Renaissance,
Abstract Expressionism














Some Key Sources:
your text
your notes
Sister Wendy, Story of Painting, 1990's videos available on blackboard
Simon Schama, Power of Art,  videos available on blackboard
Smarthistory, podcasts available everywhere
Web Gallery of Art

avoid: Quizlet (lots of inaccuracies!)

sample id's from past: 

Rembrandt van Rijn, Franz Banning Cocg Mustering his Company, 1656 later Baroque.
Rembrandt painted this enormous commission of what was essentially a gentlemen's club under the guise of a neighborhood militia at the end of his career. IT exemplifies the staged, affected light and theatricality of the Baroque period, as well as the diagonal movement. He needed the commission, and placed higher paying patrons in more signficant, central positions.

Artemesia Gentileschi, Judith and her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, 1625, Baroque

  • rare biblical scene where a woman takes action of some consequence-- Judith tricked the Assyrian general to eat, and drink (and probably have sex with her) to take advantage of him and cut his head off therefore saving her people. 
  • great use of tenebrism-- Judith covers the candlelight while still holding the bloody sword, her maidservant placing her head in the bag-- the dark shadows heighten the drama
  • because of Artemesia's international fame, the style of tenebrism and of Caravaggio became known and spread. 

Artist Unknown, Seated Guinyin Boddhisatva, ~950ce, Liao Dynasty China or Buddhist Art

Illustrates a Boddhisatva, which is one who has achieved enlightenment. Shows major differences between divine figures as depicted in Christian art vs. Buddhist art. Posture is very relaxed and casual vs., say, a madonna who is rigid and strict in posture. This sculpture illustrates a harmonious blend between divine and earthly attributes which is one of the qualities of the boddhisatva.

Shen Zhou, Poet on a Mountaintop, 1500, Ming China

This piece is a literati painting-- connected to a corresponding poem. IT displays the typical Chinese spiritual sense of nature as large and immortal and man as small and ephemeral, as well as a typical combination of hyper-realistic areas with more minimalistic areas. It shows that the artist draws inspiration from the natural world around him.

unknown artist, Chartres Cathedral, 1247, Gothic

This cathedral is a good representaiton of Gothic architecture, featuring a large rose window, tall lancet windows, and a white exterior. Gothic architecture focused on vertical thrust and a tall airy-ness that was meant to remind us of heaven as the ultimate destination.