Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Key Works for Thursday Test

Key works list for Exam
Remember: for an ID, you must know the title, artist, date (within 5 years), and period/style (renaissance, northern renaissance, mannerism, baroque, rococo, etc…)

Giotto di Bondone, Lamentation & Scrovegni chapel
Rogier van der Weyden, Deposition (12-6)
Bellini, Saint Francis in Ecstasy (12-1)
Jan van Eyck, Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami (12-5)
Massaccio, Trinity (12-23)
Massaccio, Tribute Money(12-24 &12-25)
Botticelli, Birth of Venus (12-28)
Donatello, David (12-20)
Leonardo, Last Supper (13-12)
Leonardo, Mona Lisa (13-3)
Raphael, School of Athens (13-5)
Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling
Michelangelo, Pieta (13-7)
Michelangelo, David (13-8)
Bellini, Virgin and Child Enthroned (13-13- and look online! )
Titian, Venus of Urbino (13-17)
Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece,(13-31)
Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait (13-32)
Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights Triptych (open: 13-37;)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hunters in the Snow, (13-28)
Bruegel, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus  
Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Theresa, (14-1)
Bernini, Cornaro Chapel (14-5)
Caravaggio, The Calling of St. Matthew (14-8)
Caravaggio, Entombment, (4-9)
Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes (14-10)
Pieter Paul Rubens, Raising of the Cross (14-15)
Pieter Paul Rubens, Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus (not in book)
Rembrandt van Rijn, Self Portrait 1658 (14-23)
Rembrandt van Rijn, Self Portrait in the Studio (not in book)
Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas
Jan Vermeer, Woman holding a Balance, (14-25)

Key Terms
Italian Renaissance
Northern Renaissance
High Renaissance,
Venetian Renaissance

Perspective (Orthogonal, Vanishing Point),
Painterly, colorito, disegno,
Protestant Reformation,
Diptych, Triptych, polyptych
Tenebrism (Tenebroso),

Tableau Vivant

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

Swinging- Rococo Play

 Happy Spring!  Gustav Klimt, The Kiss, 1908

File:RAFAEL - Madonna Sixtina (Gemäldegalerie Alter Meister, Dresde, 1513-14. Óleo sobre lienzo, 265 x 196 cm).jpg
Raphael, Sistine Madonna, ~1513

    Renaissance: revival of classical knowledge generally and particularly about art; rise of patronage in the arts; emphasis on perspective in painting and with it shading, emphasis on individual and physical features, and interest in clarity and human dignity; rise of self-awareness of the artist/artist as individual. Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael
Simone Peterzano (Caravaggio's teacher), Deposition, late 1500's, Mannerist

Mannerism: the ‘stylish style’ emerging about 1525, in which artists emphasize  individualistic features of their particular style rather than suppressing them as the punctilioussness of Renaissance neoclassicism would indicate; emphasis on refinement, elegance, individualism, and wit. Vasari, Correggio, Parmigianino. From the Italian word maniera,  mannerism indicates “the quality of stylishness that indicated ease of manner, virtuosity, fluency.” (Honour and Fleming 497)
Rubens, Rape of Daughters of Leucippus,  ~1617
Baroque: style emerging about 1600 in Italy that spread throughout Europe. Elaborate decoration, emphasis on motion and clearly articulated detail serve emotionally charged, dramatic and exuberant works. (Caravaggio=exagerated lighting and naturalism) Rubens (sumptuous display), Bernini Poussin, Velasquez. “Exuberant decorative richness, dynamic richness, and predominantly religious emotionalism.” (Honour and Fleming.) One strand of many different threads that art followed after Renaissance on its way toward Modernism. From the portuguese word barrocco, meaning deformed shell, the term was originally derogatory and indicated deviation from the norm as much as elaboration
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Bathers, 1765
Rococo A style of design, painting, and architecture dominating the 18th century, , and  embracing and exaggerating the decorative and asymmetrical aspects of the baroque.  and originally a derogatory term. The word combines barrocco,  rocaille (french for shell) Festive, ELEGANT, playful, witty, ornately decorative, often secular, painters set elegant life outdoors in scenes known as fêtes galantes or elegant parties, often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Think Louis XV furniture, richly decorated with organic forms and witty French painters Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806).

Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Happy Accident of the Swing,

Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, Duchess of Polignac, 1783, p. 480

Francois Boucher, Mme de Pompadour,  1756

NOT the exact image in the Posner. But better than nothing,I hope. Gabriel Huquier, after Jean-Antoine Watteau, La Voltigeuse (Woman on a Swing), 18th century. Etching and engraving. Source

 (after) Jean Antoine Watteau - The pleasures of summer; engraved by Francois Joullain (1697-1778)
After Watteau, Pleasures of Summer. Image source
Bonnart, L'Air,  image from Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Jean-Antoine Watteau. The Shepherds. c. 1717-19.


Fête galante:  an outdoor party in a paradisical setting, with elegant ladies and gents enjoying themselves outdoors or a painiting of the same.

“The dance was invented by Love to teach young people its movements” Posner, quoting Watteau’s print

Lancret, The Swing, 1724

File:Jean-Honoré Fragonard - Blind-Man’s Buff - Google Art Project.jpg
Fragonard, Blind Man's Bluff, 1769

Fragonard, The Swing, 1775

“The meaning of the image changed less than the attitude toward the meaning.” 

Fragonard, Blind Man's Bluff, 1755

Fragonard, The See Saw, 1755

File:Fragonard, The Swing.jpg
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Happy Accident of  the Swing, 1767
Fragonard, The Wardrobe, 1778

Baudouin, Lover's Surprised, mid 18th c. 

Banksy, Bristol, England

Hugh Honour and John Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History, 6th edition, p. 628: The origin of Fragonard’s The Swing is by chance known. The writer Charles Collé recorded having met the painter Gabriel-François Doyen on 2 October 1767: ‘Would you believe it!’ A gentleman of the court had sent for him shortly after a religious painting of his had been exhibited in Paris and when Doyen presented himself he found him at his ‘pleasure house’ with his mistress. ‘He started by flattering me with courtesies’, Doyen related, ‘and finished by avowing that he was dying with a desire to have me make a picture, the idea of which he was going to outline. “I should like”, Madame (pointing to his mistress) on a swing that a bishop would set going. You will place me in such a way that I would be able to see the legs of the lovely girl, and better still, if you want enliven your picture a little more…” I confess, M. Doyen said to me, that this proposition, which I wouldn’t have expected, considering the character of the picture that led to it, perplexed me and left me speechless for a moment. I collected myself, however, enough to say to him almost at once: “Ah Monsieur, it is necessary to add to the essential idea of your picture by making Madame’s shoes fly into the air and having some cupids catch them.” Doyen did not accept the commission, however, and passed it on to Fragonard. The identity of the patron is unknown, though he was at one time thought to have been the Baron de Saint-Julien, the Receiver General of the French Clergy, which would have explained the request to include a bishop pushing a the swing. This idea as well as that of having himself and his mistress portrayed was evidently dropped by the patron, whoever he may have been. The picture was depersonalized and, due to Fragonard’s extremely sensuous imagination, became a universal image of joyous, carefree sexuality.

The theme is that of love and the rising tide of passion, as intimated by the sculptural group in the lower centre of the picture. (Dolphins driven by cupids drawing the water-chariot of Venus symbolize the impatient surge of love). Beneath the girl on the swing, lying in a great bush, a tangle of flowers and foliage, is the young lover, gasping with anticipation. The bush is, evidently, a private place as it is enclosed by little fences. But the youth has found his way to it. Thrilling to the sight now offered him, the youth reaches out with hat in hand. (A hat in eighteenth-century erotic imagery covered not only the head but also another part of the male body when inadvertently exposed.) The feminine counterpart to the hat was the shoe and in The Swing the girl’s show flies off her pretty foot to be lost in the undergrowth. This idea had been  suggested originally by Doyen, as he recounted to Collé, and in French paintings of the period a naked foot and lost shoe often accompany the more familiar broken pitcher as a symbol of lost virginity.
However, all these erotic symbols would lie inert on the canvas had not Fragonard charged the whole painting with the amorous ebullience and joy of an impetuous surrender to love. In a shimmer of leaves and rose petals, lit up by a sparkling beam of sunshine, the girl, in a frothy dress of cream and juicy pink, rides the swing with happy, thoughtless abandon. Her legs parted, her skirts open; the youth in the rose-bush, hat off, arm erect, lunges towards her. Suddenly, as she reaches the peak of her ride, her shoe flies.

Self Portraits by Julie Heffernan, 2007-2017Julie Heffernan Self_Portrait_as_Great_Heap

Julie Heffernan Self_Portrait_as_Dirty_Princess

Julie HeffernanSelf_Portrait_as_Infantas_in_Purgatorium 

Thursday, February 9, 2017

Knife Fights and other Baroque Violence

Breaking out of the Renaissance

Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait (13-32). 
Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights (outer panels), c. 1480-1505, oil on panel, 220 x 390 cm (Prado, Madrid)
Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1505, oil on panel, 220 x 390 cm (Prado)
God (detail of outer panels) Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1505, oil on panel, 220 x 390 cm (Prado)

Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights Triptych, 1510 best website on the planet. 

Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1505, oil on panel, 220 x 390 cm (Prado)

Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1505, oil on panel, 220 x 390 cm (Prado)

Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1505, oil on panel, 220 x 390 cm (Prado)

Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1505, oil on panel, 220 x 390 cm (Prado)

Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1505, oil on panel, 220 x 390 cm (Prado)

Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, c. 1480-1505, oil on panel, 220 x 390 cm (Prado)

Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights Triptych (open, 13-37, and closed, not in book),
 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hunters in the Snow, 1565, 46" x 63"(13-28) and 

Pieter Brueghel??, The Fall of Icarus, Oil-tempera, 29 inches x 44 inches. Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels.

Musee des Beaux Arts

W. H. Auden
About suffering they were never wrong,
The old Masters: how well they understood
Its human position: how it takes place
While someone else is eating or opening a window or just walking dully along;
How, when the aged are reverently, passionately waiting
For the miraculous birth, there always must be
Children who did not specially want it to happen, skating
On a pond at the edge of the wood:
They never forgot
That even the dreadful martyrdom must run its course
Anyhow in a corner, some untidy spot
Where the dogs go on with their doggy life and the torturer's horse
Scratches its innocent behind on a tree.
In Breughel's Icarus, for instance: how everything turns away
Quite leisurely from the disaster; the ploughman may
Have heard the splash, the forsaken cry,
But for him it was not an important failure; the sun shone
As it had to on the white legs disappearing into the green
Water, and the expensive delicate ship that must have seen
Something amazing, a boy falling out of the sky,
Had somewhere to get to and sailed calmly on.

Parmigianino, Madonna of the Long Neck, 1534, Mannerism

JAcopo Pontormo, Entombment,  1528 Mannerism

Beauties and Beasts: Judith &Holofernes; Artemesia Gentileschi & Michelangelo Caravaggio, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, his Brother Luigi, & the inconstant Constance. 

a few helpful terms:
Renaissance "The "rebirth" of art in Italy was connected with the rediscovery of ancient philosophy, literature, and science and the evolution of empirical methods of study in these fields. Increased awareness of classical knowledge created a new resolve to learn by direct observation and study of the natural world. Consequently, secular themes became increasingly important to artists, and with the revived interest in antiquity came a new repertoire of subjects drawn from Greek and Roman history and mythology. The models provided by ancient buildings and works of art also inspired the development of new artistic techniques and the desire to re-create the forms and styles of classical art.
Central to the development of Renaissance art was the emergence of the artist as a creator, sought after and respected for his erudition and imagination. Art, too, became valued--not merely as a vehicle for religious and social didacticism, but even more as a mode of personal, aesthetic expression. The art of the High Renaissance, however, sought a general, unified effect of pictorial representation or architectural composition, increasing the dramatic force and physical presence of a work of art and gathering its energies and forming a controlled equilibrium. " from the webmuseum at ibiblio

A style of 16th-century Italian art precedingthe Baroque, characterized by unusualeffects of scale, lighting, and perspective, and the use of bright, often lurid colors. It is particularly associated with the work of Pontormo, Vasari,and late Michelangelo. (oxford dictionary)

Baroque "Baroque period, era in the history of the Western arts roughly coinciding with the 17th century. Its earliest manifestations, which occurred in Italy, date from the latter decades of the 16th century, while in some regions, notably Germany and colonial South America, certain of its culminating achievements did not occur until the 18th century. The work that distinguishes the Baroque period is stylistically complex, even contradictory. In general, however, the desire to evoke emotional states by appealing to the senses, often in dramatic ways, underlies its manifestations. Some of the qualities most frequently associated with the Baroque are grandeur, sensuous richness, drama, vitality, movement, tension, emotional exuberance, and a tendency to blur distinctions between the various arts.

A term used in the literature of the arts with both historical and critical meanings and as both an adjective and a noun. The word has a long, complex and controversial history (it possibly derived from a Portuguese word for a misshapen pearl, and until the late 19th century it was used mainly as a synonym for `absurd' or `grotesque'), but in English it is now current with three principal meanings." from the webmuseum at ibiblio

 (It. "light dark")
In painting, the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century, replacing tempera, encouraged the development of chiaroscuro, for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. When the contrast of light and dark is strong, chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. (from Web Gallery of Art
A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source (from Web Gallery of Art
Caravaggio (1571-1610)
As I've noted, the very act of recording the names and biographies of artists in the Renaissance provides one of the markers that makes many historians call the Renaissance the first Modern Period. Perhaps it's not unexpected that three artists who, more than any others, define the Italian Baroque Period, which emphasized drama more than any other trait, lived incredibly dramatic lives that fed into their works.  
File:Caravaggio incredulity.jpg
Caravaggio, Incredulity of St. Thomas, 1602

First, Michelangelo da Caravaggio, known as Caravaggio, who, upon losing his father and grandfather to the Black Plague on the same day, and his mother a less than decade later, left his humble country roots to move to Milan to study painting then to Rome (possibly on the run for the first time, after injuring a police officer) to pursue life as a painter. Caravaggio at first struggled significantly, perhaps seduced by the new charms and possibilities of city life, and certainly struggling under its fiscal burdens. He found his footing painting still lives in the workshop of a highly successful painter, and then, after languishing ill for a summer, he stepped out on his own and began a series of allegorical portraits, which also served as advertisements for his skill in the areas of still life, portrait, and history painting. 
Caravaggio, Young Bacchus, 1595
It was not long before his powerfully realistic and dramatic style caught the eye of leaders in the church, and he entered the more profitable and respected genre of religious paintings, much more likely to launch an artist into fame. Which it did. 

Caravaggio, Calling of St. Matthew, 1599
With fame, Caravaggio's exploits in the streets drew attention. Jealous artists and police alike turned their punitive eyes on his violent swaggering about town between commissions, and his knife fights and street brawls got him thrown into jail again and again. Lucky for Caravaggio, he had powerful friends who, until his violence finally, and, it seems, inevitably, resulted in murder, managed to keep the artist from spending much time in jail.
File:David and Goliath by Caravaggio.jpg
Caravaggio, David with the Head of Goliath, 1609

Caravaggio's Fight Club lifestyle contrasted significantly with his intensive and dedicated work in the studio; contemporary accounts indicate that he flipped back and forth between periods of hard work and periods of violent play. His life in the streets put him in contact with struggling artists, prostitutes, thieves and other rough elements; the admiration of the highest level of art connoisseurs put him in contact with cardinals and popes.
File:Michelangelo Caravaggio 069.jpg
Caravaggio, Death of the Virgin, 1605
This double existence seems to appear in his work: many say he achieved such power in his religious works because he cast everyday ruffians in roles previously tidied up and  detached from the everyday in the perfect, idealized heros of the Renaissance and before. Caravaggio animates the stories he tells by telling them with everyday, contemporary character, making them seem much more immediate. Yet people were shocked to see what they could easily imagine a prostitute (male or female) playing the role of a gospel or saint.
Caravaggio, Entombment, ~1602
File:Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio - Judith Beheading Holofernes (detail) - WGA04103.jpg
Caravaggio, Judith, 1598
Caravaggio achieved great fame during his own lifetime, and lashed out in print and in person against those he saw as his imitators. Nonetheless, he left behind a significant string of followers we now know as the Caravaggisti, who did not train with him-- or, in most cases, even know him-- but imitated his style through his works.

Artemesia Gentileschi (1593-1656
Among the most highly regarded of the Caravaggisti was Artemesia Gentileschi, one of the most skilled painters and certainly the most famous woman artist of the Italian Baroque. Daughter of a painter, Artemesia showed strong talent early, and trained with her father and the continued with Agostino Tassi.

File:Tassi, Agostino - Naufragio della flotta di Enea - 1627.jpg
Agnostino Tassi, The Fleet of Aeneas, 1593

Artemesia's first painting (that still exists) shows the story of Susanna and the Elders, completed in 1610, when Artemesia was 17. The story tells of pair of respected elders who fell so in lust with Susanna that they contrived an opportunity to spy on her as she was bathing. The men tried to trap her by telling her that if she would not lie with them, they would accuse her of adultery with a young man. Susanna refused, and the men very nearly had her put to death, despite her history of purity,  until they were trapped by careful cross examination and she was set free. 

Artemesia Gentileschi, Susanna and the Elders, 1610
In 1611, Artemesia accused her teacher, Tassi, of rape. Artemesia experienced terrible treatment after she accused Tassi, and the trial resulted in little clarity. Subjected to thumbscrews and significant humiliations during the trial, the outcome was never entirely conclusive, despite the fact that Tassi had previously been accused of rape and other violence. We can't draw any very exact conclusions about what happened between Artemesia and Tassi; relationships between teacher and student and accused and victim tangled confusingly, and unequal balance of power between women and men complicate it further.
Judith beheading Holofernes, detail, 1612–1613,  Artemisia Gentileschi. Italian Early Baroque painter,  (1593–1652)
Artemesia repeatedly painted stories of violent power struggle between men and women, thereby making it very difficult to separate her life from her art, and indeed, her personal experiences may have helped her to achieve such dramatic intensity in her portrayals of women in power. 
Artemesia Gentileschi, Self Portrait, ~1638
 Most famously, she considered the story of Judith and Holofernes repeatedly, a topic also painted repeatedly by her "mentor," Caravaggio, who tackled three subjects in which beheading was central: 

Caravaggio, Medusa Shield, 1596
The Medusa Shield, a self portrait reportedly inspired by Leonardo's trick

Caravaggio, David with the Head of Goliath, 1610

David with the Head of Goliath, in which Caravaggio depicted himself unusually as the head of the monstrous enemy, not the pure hero as other artists had done
Archivo:Judith Beheading Holofernes by Caravaggio.jpg
Caravaggio, Judith and Holofernes, 1599

File:Artemisia Gentileschi - Judith Beheading Holofernes - WGA8563.jpg
Artemesia, Judith and Holofernes, 1611
File:GENTILESCHI Judith.jpg
Artemesia, Judith and Holofernes, 16?

Artemesia, Judith and her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, 1614-1620
Artemesia, Judith and her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, 1614-1620

 and Judith and Holofernes, where a pure, female martyr gave herself to save her people.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
I leave the telling of Bernini's encounters with violence to Simon Schama, as he told it with drama befitting the baroque.
Bernini, Self Portrait as David, 1623

Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Head of Costanza, 1636

Bernini, Self Portrait as Damned Soul, 1619  

Rembrandt, Self Portrait 1658 (14-23) 
Rembrandt,  Self Portrait in the Studio, 1626
Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas, 1656

Jan Vermeer, Woman holding a Balance, (14-25), 1664

 Key Terms: Baroque, the Gaze, genre

Swinging Rococo in France/ Off with their heads: Neoclassicism Stoksdad 406-414

Watteau, Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1733 (14-33), 
Fragonard, The Swing, neither in book, 
"Self-Portrait with Birds in My Fingers"
Julie Heffernan (not in book)